Hacking using an image registry

Loki Operator is the Kubernetes Operator for Loki.

Hacking using kind

kind is a tool for running local Kubernetes clusters using Docker container “nodes”. kind was primarily designed for testing Kubernetes itself, but may be used for local development or CI.

Requirements

  • Install kubectl or Openshift CLI for communicating with the cluster. The guide below will be using kubectl for the same.
  • Create a running Kubernetes cluster using kind.
  • A container registry that you and your Kubernetes cluster can reach. We recommend quay.io.

Installation of Loki Operator

  • Build and push the container image and then deploy the operator with:

    make oci-build oci-push deploy REGISTRY_ORG=$YOUR_QUAY_ORG VERSION=latest
    

    where $YOUR_QUAY_ORG is your personal quay.io account where you can push container images.

    The above command will deploy the operator to your active Kubernetes cluster defined by your local kubeconfig. The operator will be running in the default namespace.

  • You can confirm that the operator is up and running using:

    kubectl get pods
    

    You should see controller-manager-xxxx and minio-xxxx pods running.

  • Now create a LokiStack instance to get the various components of Loki up and running:

    kubectl apply -f hack/lokistack_dev.yaml
    

    This will create distributor, compactor, ingester, querier and query-frontend components.

    Confirm that all components are up and running for deployments using:

    kubectl rollout status deployment/<DEPLOYMENT_NAME>
    

    where <DEPLOYMENT_NAME> is the name of the deployment and can be found using:

    kubectl get deployments
    

    Confirm that all are up and running for statefulsets using:

    kubectl rollout status statefulset/<STATEFULSET_NAME>  
    

    where <STATEFULSET_NAME> is the name of the statefulset and can be found using:

    kubectl get statefulsets
    

Cleanup

To cleanup deployments of the operator, you can use:

make undeploy

It will undeploy controller from the configured Kubernetes cluster in ~/.kube/config

Hacking on OpenShift

Requirements

  • Install kubectl or Openshift CLI for communicating with the cluster. The guide below will be using kubectl for the same.
  • Create a running OpenShift cluster on AWS.
  • A container registry that you and your OpenShift cluster can reach. We recommend quay.io.
  • Create an S3 bucket in one of the AWS Regions.

Installation of Loki Operator

  • Create the openshift-operators-redhat namespace in the cluster:

    kubectl create ns openshift-operators-redhat
    
  • Build and push the container image [2] and then deploy the operator with:

    make olm-deploy REGISTRY_ORG=$YOUR_QUAY_ORG VERSION=$VERSION
    

    where $YOUR_QUAY_ORG is your personal quay.io account where you can push container images and $VERSION can be any random version number such as v0.0.1.

    The above command will deploy the operator to your active Openshift cluster defined by your local kubeconfig. The operator will be running in the openshift-operators-redhat namespace.

  • You can confirm that the operator is up and running using:

    kubectl -n openshift-operators-redhat get pods
    
  • Next step is to create the openshift-logging namespace in the cluster:

    kubectl create ns openshift-logging
    
  • Now you need to create a storage secret for the operator. This can be done using:

    ./hack/deploy-aws-storage-secret.sh <BUCKET_NAME>
    

    This secret will be available in openshift-logging namespace. You can check the hack/deploy-aws-storage-secret.sh file to check the content of the secret. By default, the script will pull credential information using the aws cli. However, these values can be overwritten. For example:

    REGION=us-west-1 ./hack/deploy-aws-storage-secret.sh <BUCKET_NAME>
    
  • Now you need to create a gateway secret [3] for the operator. This can be done using:

    kubectl -n openshift-logging create secret generic test1 \
      --from-literal=clientID="<CLIENT_ID>" \
      --from-literal=clientSecret="<CLIENT_SECRET>" \
      --from-literal=issuerCAPath="<ISSUER_CA_PATH>"
    
  • Once the object storage secret is created, you can now create a LokiStack instance to get the various components of Loki up and running:

    kubectl -n openshift-logging apply -f hack/lokistack_gateway_dev.yaml
    

    This will create distributor, compactor, ingester, querier, query-frontend and lokistack-gateway components.

    Confirm that all are up and running for deployments using:

    kubectl -n openshift-logging rollout status deployment/<DEPLOYMENT_NAME>
    

    where <DEPLOYMENT_NAME> is the name of the deployment and can be found using:

    kubectl -n openshift-logging get deployments
    

    Confirm that all are up and running for statefulsets using:

    kubectl -n openshift-logging rollout status statefulset/<STATEFULSET_NAME>  
    

    where <STATEFULSET_NAME> is the name of the statefulset and can be found using:

    kubectl -n openshift-logging get statefulsets
    

    If you don’t want lokistack-gateway component [1] then you can skip it by removing the --with-lokistack-gateway args from the loki-operator-controller-manager deployment:

    kubectl -n openshift-operators-redhat edit deployment/loki-operator-controller-manager
    

    Delete the flag --with-lokistack-gateway from the args section and save the file. This will update the deployment and now you can create LokiStack instance using:

    kubectl -n openshift-logging apply -f hack/lokistack_dev.yaml
    

    This will create distributor, compactor, ingester, querier and query-frontend components only.

Cleanup

To cleanup deployments of the operator, you can use:

make olm-undeploy

It will cleanup deployments of the operator bundle, and the operator via OLM on an OpenShift cluster selected via ~/.kube/config

Notes

[1] lokistack-gateway is an optional component deployed as part of Loki Operator. It provides secure access to Loki’s distributor (i.e. for pushing logs) and query-frontend (i.e. for querying logs) via consulting an OAuth/OIDC endpoint for the request subject.

[2] If you get multiple images as options, and you are required to select one of them then select docker.io/library/golang:1.18

[3] The OIDC configuration expects clientID, clientSecret and issuerCAPath which should be provided via a Kubernetes secret that the LokiStack admin provides upfront.

Each tenant Secret is required to match:

  • metadata.name with TenantsSecretsSpec.Name.
  • metadata.namespace with LokiStack.metadata.namespace.

Development Add-Ons

To help with testing and development, a Promtail and logcli deployment are available. The example file has been configured to work with the lokistack-gateway. In order to work without this component, change the URLs to use the distributor and query-frontend service respectively.

In order to deploy these resources, follow the above steps to deploy the operator and instance. Then, do the following command:

kubectl apply -f ./hack/addons_dev.yaml

Notes

[1] When using an OpenShift cluster, the addons_ocp.yaml should be used. In a native K8s cluster the addons_dev.yaml should be used. The OpenShift environment uses SecurityContextConstraints in order to limit or enable pod capabilities.

[2] When deploying on a native K8s cluster, ensure that the namespaces of the ServiceAccount in the ClusterRoleBinding objects are changed accordingly.

Basic Troubleshooting

New changes are not detected by Loki Operator

Suppose you made some changes to the Loki Operator’s code and deployed it, but the changes are not visible when it runs. This happens when the deployment pulls the old image of the operator because of the imagePullPolicy being set to IfNotPresent. Therefore, you need to make some changes to make your deployment pull a new image always:

  • Go to config/manager/manager.yaml file.

  • Set the imagePullPolicy to Always i.e.,

    imagePullPolicy: Always
    
  • Deploy the operator again.

kubectl using old context

It is possible that when you use two different clusters - one is kind cluster and the other is OpenShift cluster, you might need to switch between clusters to test your changes. There is a possibility that once you switch between clusters, the kubectl might not switch the context automatically and hence you might need to do this manually to correctly communicate with your cluster.

  • List all the available context:

    kubectl config get-contexts
    

    The * mark against the context shows the one in use currently.

  • Set the context name you want to use now:

    kubectl config use-context $CONTEXTNAME
    

    where $CONTEXTNAME is the context name you want to use now from the previous step.

The Loki Operator giving Missing Secrets / Invalid Secrets error

You have probably forgotten to create the gateway secrets because of which the operator runs in degraded condition. Follow the steps mentioned in the step-by-step guide to create the gateway secret first. Once done, you can now create the LokiStack instance.

Verify this by checking the conditions field:

kubectl get lokistack lokistack-dev -o yaml

For OpenShift, the above command would be:

kubectl -n openshift-logging get lokistack lokistack-dev -o yaml

The Loki Operator giving Mandatory Configuration / Incompatible Configuration error

This usually happens when the LokiStack CR is wrongly configured for the lokistack-gateway. Please read the enhancement proposal to figure out the correct way to configure it.